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Detection of psychological defense
We would like to draw your attention to the fact that the results may not coincide with the real expectations and may upset some.

The human psyche is equipped with mechanisms that help us instinctively protect our own self.

Applying them helps making our experience less traumatic, but at the same time reduces our chances of successful interaction with reality. Each of us applies about five of such strategies every day.

In this test you will find a number of statements about certain behaviors and attitudes. You can agree with them or disagree. There are no right or wrong answers, since everyone has the right for their own point of view. Answer what you think is right for you.

Please pay attention to the following:

Do not think about which answer could create the best impression of yourself and answer as you think is the most preferable. We do not know what are your answers, as the processing of the results is fully automatic.

Do not think over the sentences for a long time. Choosing the answer, select the one that came up first in mind.

Some statements may not be quite applicable to you. Despite this, choose one of the answers, that suits you the most.

Conte, H. R. and Apter, A. (1995). The life style index: A self-report measure of ego defenses. In Ego defenses: Theory and measurement. Edited by Conte, H. R. & Plutchik, R., 179–201. New York, NY: Wiley.
Hyphantis, T., Goulia, P., Floros, G., Iconomou, G., Pappas, A., I., Karaivatzoglou, K., & Konstantinos, A. (2011). Assessing ego defense mechanisms by questionnaire: Psychometric properties and psychopathological correlates of the Greek version of the Plutchik's life style index. Journal of Personality Assessment, 93. 605. DOI:10.1080/00223891.2011.608759
Plutchik, R. (1995). A theory of ego defenses. In Ego defenses: Theory and measurement, Edited by: Conte, H. R. and Plutchik, R. 13–36. New York, NY: Wiley
Plutchik, R., & Kellerman, H. (Eds.). (1989). Emotion: Theory, research, and experience, Vol. 4. The measurement of emotions. Academic Press.
Plutchik, R., Kellerman, H. & Conte, H. R. (1979). A structural theory of ego defenses and emotions. In Emotions in personality and psychopathology, Edited by: Izard, C. E. 229–256. New York, NY: Plenum
Wallbott, H. G., & Scherer, K. R. (1989). Assessing emotion by questionnaire. In R. Plutchik & H. Kellerman (Eds.), Emotion: Theory, research, and experience, 4. The measurement of emotions (p. 55–82). Academic Press.
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